This essay traces the concept of nation since Marx times to late 20th-century debate on globalization. The book features an investigation of the theories and viewpoints of Karl Marx, Second International, Austrian Marxism and Otto Bauer, Stalin, Gramsci, E.P.Tomson, Nicos Poulantzas, Etienne Balibar, Hannah Arendt, Benedict Anderson, Appadurai, Habermas, Hardt, Negri and Agamben. The idea of nation in a world of obscure future becomes an anchor of certainty, a life boat. To others, though, it is an impervious line keeping them outside. Ambivalence about the future turns into ambivalence about nation. Revisiting how those who wished to change the world theorized about nation stems from our need to realise the changes which reorder the structural relationships of nation-state, and to think of history always in terms of its constituent element: its expectations.